Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, 1646 - 1716

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was a German philosopher whose writings were an oblique yet important influence on the New England Transcendentalists.  His most significant philosophical work was Monadology, in which he argued that all existing substances--as well as the human soul--are examples of monads acting in "pre-established harmony."  Ralph Waldo Emerson, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, and W. T. Harris all appreciated Leibniz and adopted his concepts in one way or another.